About Kingdom Plantae
The Kingdom Plantae includes all types of eukaryotic, multicellular, photosynthetic plants found in this biosphere. Most of the organism in this kingdom is autotrophs, which synthesis their own food with the help of solar energy. There are very few species, which are both autotrophs and heterotrophs.The history of life on earth and the success of many organisms literally depend on the success of plants. The Kingdom Plantae is also called as Kingdom Metaphyta. This kingdom includes all types plants like herbs,shrubs,trees,creepers,climbers,aquatic plants,desert plants, mountain plants,flowering and non flowering plants,etc.
Characteristics of Kingdom Plantae
The main characteristics of this kingdom are as follow
- Most of the plants are eukaryotic and chlorophyll containing organisms.
- Cell walls of plant cells are comprised of cellulose.
- They have an ability to grow by cell division.
- In life cycle of plant cells, the interchanges occur from the embryos and are supported by other tissues and self produce.
- Plants have both organs and organ systems.
- They obtain their energy from sun through photosynthesis.
- Plants reproduce both by sexual and asexual.
- Plants develop a self defense mechanism to protect them from being destroyed by animals, fungi and other plants.
- Organisms within Kingdom Plantae are multicellular, eukaryotic and autotrophic.
- They lack motility.
Classification of Kingdom Plantae
- The presence of vascular tissue (Pteridophytae).
- The absence of vascular tissue (Bryophyta).
- The presence of seeds (Angiosperms).
- The absence of seeds (Gymnosperms).
1. Phyllum Pteridophytae
- They are seedless vascular plants, which contain vascular tissues but do not produce seeds.
- They are involved in transportation of fluids.
- The reproduction process is carried by spores.
Examples of Phylum Pteridophytae are horsetails, ferns and club mosses.
2. Phyllum Bryophyta
- They are non-vascular land plants, which do not contain any conducting tissues and are often referred to as bryophytes.
- These plants are small, grow close to the ground and include mosses and liverworts.
- They are very small in structure and are considered as important members of our ecosystem.
- The reproduction process is carried in their spores. They are non flowering plant and are found mainly growing on the ground, on other plants and on rocks.
- They play a vital role in preventing soil erosion.
Examples of Phylum Bryophyta are Mosses, Liverworts and Hornworts.
3. Phyllum Angiosperms
- Angiosperms are flowering plants, which develops the seeds within a protective structure.
- The reproduction process is carried by Angiosperm.
- They develop their seeds within an ovary, which itself is embedded in a flower. After the stage of fertilization, the flower falls and the ovary bulges to become a fruit.
- Angiosperms in the class Dicotyledoneae grows into two seed-leaves (cotyledons).
- An angiosperms leaf consists of a single, branched, main vein, which originates from the base of the leaf blade. In few plats, it may also consist of four or more main veins diverging from the same base.
Examples of Phylum Angiosperms are trees, shrubs, vines and flowers.
4. Phyllum Gymnosperms
- Gymnosperms are non-flowering plants with undeveloped seeds, which are present in an enclosed structure.
- Monocot begins with a single seed-leaf. The main veins of their leaves are usually parallel and unbranched.
- Monocot plays an important role in providing us with our primary sources of nutrition, which includes grains, fruits, etc.
Examples of Phylum Gymnosperms are palms, carpet lawns, etc.