Definition of Error

The difference between the measured value and the actual value is called Error.


When same instrument under the same situation and conditions is used for calculating the same measurements then there are chances that it may get different results,  as an example if two persons use the same instrument for measurement for finding the same measurement, it is not essential that they both get the same results. There may arises a difference between their measurements. This difference is termed as an “ERROR”.

Types Of Errors

Errors can be divided into three categories:

  1. Personal Errors

    Errors come into play because of faulty procedure adopted by by the observer is called “Personal Errors”.
    Personal errors are generally observered due to making mistake or fault in reading a scale. It is due to faulty procedure adopted by the person making measurement.

  2. Systematic Errors

    This type of errors are observed due to defect in the measuring device. Generally they also referred as “Zero Errors” which may be positive or negative . These errors can be fixed by correcting measurement devices.

  3. Random Errors

    The errors produced due to sudden change in experimental conditions are known as “Random Errors”.
    For example: During sudden change in temperature, change in humidity, fluctuation in potential difference(voltage). These are accidental and situational errors and is beyond the control of the person making measurement.


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