Compounds which contain carbon as an alement are known as Carbon Compounds. These compounds may contain carbon and hydrogen only or some other elements like oxygen, sulphur, nitogen, halogen and phosporous.
When one or more Hydrogen atoms of a hydrocarbon are replaced by hydroxyl groups or OH, the resulting compound is called as an alcohol.
Types of Alcohols
Mono Hydric Alcohol
The type of alcohol that contains only one OH group is called as mono hydric alcohol.
Di Hydric Alcohols
The type of alcohol that contains two OH groups is called as Dihydric alcohol.
Tri Hydric Alcohols
The type of alcohol that contains three OH groups is called as trihydric alcohol.
Poly Hydric Alcohols
The type of alcohol that contains more than three OH groups is called as polyhydric alcohol.
It is commercially called as wood sprit. It was obtained in 1661 by the Boyle.
Preparation of Methanol
Methanol is prepared commercially from a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. This mixture is treated at 200 atmospheres and then passed over heated in the presence of the mixture of the both catalyst of ZnO and Cr2O3 that treated at the temperature of 400O C to 450O C. This reaction results the formation of methanol vapors which are then condensed to liquid state.
CO + 2H2 à CH3-OH
- It is a colorless and volatile.
- It is less viscous
- It is a poisonous liquid.
- It has burning taste.
Methanol gives three type of the chemical reactions.
- Oxidation reaction
Methanol is oxidized to the methanol with the mixture of the K2Cr2O7 and concentrated H2SO4.
CH3-OH + [O] ——–> HCHO + H2O
- Esterification reaction
The reaction between the alcohol and the carboxylic acid and produces the ester and the water.
CH3-OH + CH3COOH ——–> CH3-COO-CH3 +H2O
- Substitution of the OH group by the halogens.
The methyl halide is produced by the combination of methanol and the halogens.
CH3-OH + HCl ——–> CH3-Cl + H2O
- It is used to make the methylated sprit.
- It is used to prepare the anti-freeze solution.
- It is used in the manufacturing of the dyes and the perfumes
- It is used to prepare the drugs.
It is called as alcohol and it is largely produced by the process of the fermentation.
Fermentation produces the gentle bubbling and the carbon di oxide escape from the gas in the form of bubbles and this process is called as fermentation. The starch is cooked to form the pulp and the malt is added to that enzyme diastase may hydrolyze starch to sugar maltose. Then the sugar is converted into the glucose by the reaction of maltase and yeast. Then the glucose is converted into the ethanol and carbon dioxide by 14 enzymes present in the living cells. Then the ethanol is separated from the water and the other impurities through distillation as its boiling point is 78.5C
From Fermentation of Molasses
The thick dark brown syrup left after the isolation of crystalline cane is called as molasses. This molasses is mixed with yeast which secrets the enzyme sucrose and convert that sugar into the glucose. Then this glucose and fructose reacted with zymase and produced ethanol and carbondioxide.
From Fermentation of Glucose
Different kind of sugar can be fermented to produce the different alcoholic beverages. For example the glucose and sucrose is converted into the ethanol and carbon dioxide by the action of the zymase that is present in the yeast.
- It is colorless, volatile with the sweet smell.
- It is soluble in water due to the presence of hydroxyl group.
- It’s boiling point is 78.5C
It gives following types of the reactions.
Ethanol is oxidized to ethanol with K2Cr2O7 in the presence of Concentrated Sulphuric acid.
- Displacement of hydroxyl group
Ethanol reacts with HCl in the presence of the ZnCl2 to form chlro ethane.
- Ester formation
Ethanol like other alcohols reacts with acetic acid forming ester. Ethanol losses hydrogen and acid losses hydroxide to give water. Esterification is linked with neutralization, but it is different as in the neutralization H+ and OH- are lost in the ionic form where as in esterification in covalent form.
- It is used as a raw material for synthesis of organic compounds for example ethanol esters.
- It is used in the base form of ethanol.
- It is use in the anti-freeze in automobile radiators.
- It is used in the beverages, bears, wines.
The aromatic compound contains OH group directly attached to the rings carbon atom are called as phenols.
Compounds having the hydro oxyl attached to the naphthalene ring is called as Napthalone.
Preparation of Phenols
Chloro benzene on heating with 10% NaOH forms sodium phenoxide which on further heating give phenols.
From Benzene Sulphonate
The benzene sulphonate is fused with NaOH at 25 C and gives sodium phenoxide which on further heating produces phenol.
- It is colorless, crystalline and poisonous solid.
- It is peculiar in odor.
- It is soluble in water.
Phenol are weak acids it gives H ion and stable phenolate ion.
Reaction with Alkalis
Phenols dissolve in alkalis and yield salt and water.
Reaction with Zinc Dust
When phenol vapour are passed over red hot zinc dust it is reduced to the zinc.
- It is used as an antiseptic.
- It is a chief active agent in many of the coalter dips.
- It is used in the manufacturing of the soaps, plastic dyes, sprays.
- It is used in the preparation of the drugs like asparin
- It is used as an ink preservative.
Ethers are the functional group of mono hydric alcohol.
Classification of Ethers
If two alkyl groups are present in the ethers are similar then they are said to be symmetrical ethers.
If two different alkyl groups are present in the ethers are similar then they are said to be symmetrical ethers.
From Ethyl Alcohol
When the ethyl alcohol is treated in the presence of the sulphuric acid it produces diethyl alcohol.
From Ethyl Chloride
When ethyl chloride is heated with the dry silver then it produces diethyl alcohol.
- It is a colorless liquid
- It has low boiling point.
- It is highly inflammable.
- It is a good solvent.
It is not very much reactive compound. Their chemical inactivity makes them good solvent to dissolve many organic to dissolve many organic compounds like fats, oil and gums.
Oxygen atom of ether posses two lone pair of electrons can accept proton or donate electronic pair to form oxonium ion.
Aldehydes are the compounds having carboxyl group whose one valency is satisfied by hydrogen and other is satisfied by an alkyl group.
Preparation of form Aldehyde
By Dehydrogenation of Methanol
Methanol vapors and air is over heated with catalyst.
By Oxidation of Methanol
Methanol is oxidized to methanol by heating methanol with the mixture of K2Cr2O7.
Form aldehyde or methanol has an active hydrogen atom directly associated with carbonyl group which can be easily oxidized.
They are the molecules having the carbonyl group.
Classification of Ketones
If two alkyl groups are present in the ketones are similar then they are said to be symmetrical ethers.
If two different alkyl groups are present in the ketone are similar then they are said to be symmetrical ethers.
Carbonyl group of ketones is also polarized like aldehydes with carbon partial positive and oxygen partial negative.
The acetone is oxidized to the acetic acid in the presence of the oxidizing mixture of K2Cr2O7 and H2SO4.
Acetone is reduced to the secondry propyl alcohol on heating in the presence of catalyst pd.
Organic compounds that having carboxyl group are called as carboxylic acids.
Classification of Carboxylic Acid
Mono Carboxylic Acid
Carboxylic acid contains only one carboxyl group is called as mono carboxylic acid.
Di Carboxylic Acid
Carboxylic acid contains two carboxyl group is called as mono carboxylic acid.
Tri Carboxylic Acid
Carboxylic acid contains three carboxyl group is called as mono carboxylic acid.
The chemical reactivity of carboxylic acids depend mainly on the carboxylic group that is obtained from combination of carboxyl group and hydroxyl group.
Alkyl derivatives of carboxylic acids are called ester.
- It is liquid with pleasant smell.
- It is used as a solvent for paints.